Discovery of the new species of Ponticola Iljin, 1927. Genetic studies were conducted under the Caucasus Barcode of Life (CaBOL) project. Ponticola alasanicus, a new species is described from the Alazani River, western Caspian Sea Basin, Georgia. It is distinguished from its congeners in the Caspian and Black Sea Basins by having the following features: dorsal fin with VI-VII spines and 15½-16½ branched rays, anal fin with 10½-12½ branched rays; lateral line with 48-55 scales; laterally compressed body with dark brown and black blotches – scales ctenoid; first and second dorsal fins almost touching with dorsal fins bases; head large, depressed, wider than deep, its length approaches almost 3.4th of standard length; nape scaled completely; cycloid scales cover upper part of opercle, cheeks noticeably swollen; snout longer than eye, eye diameter 4.5 times its head length; lower jaw slightly protruding; upper lip is uniform; pelvic disc short, elongated and flat, not reaching the anus; the pectoral fins extends vertically through first branched dorsal fin; caudal fin rounded. Ponticola alasanicus sp. n. belongs to P. syrman group and it is separated by a minimum Kimura 2-parameter distance of 3.5, 3.6 and 4.8% from P. syrman, P. iranicus and P. patimari, respectively.